A chiller is a refrigeration machine with an intermediate refrigerant used in central air conditioning systems. It cools or heats the coolant (antifreeze, water) and feeds it through the piping system to fan coil units or other heat exchangers.
Chillers types can be divided into: Air-cooled condenser (With axial or centrifugal fan, remote condenser) and Water-cooled condenser, absorption and low temperature.
The hydronic module is located next to (or built into) the chiller. Through pipelines, the liquid is diluted through the premises of the building to the fan coil units.
The chiller itself has a Monoblock design and includes: Compressor, air-cooled condenser, axial fans, evaporator, and an automation system. Therefore, it can be called a chiller with an integrated condenser.
Some chillers (Heat pump) can not only cool but also heat water. The main advantage of the circuit is that there is nothing superfluous in it, therefore this cooling circuit turns out to be the cheapest in comparison with other chillers types.
They are installed outdoors (Balconies, Streets, Flat Roofs, etc..)
The air for cooling the condenser is taken from the room in which the chiller is installed in and discharged outside through special air ducts. Outside air enters either through the grilles installed in the wall of the room, or through special air ducts.
The main advantage of this scheme is that there is no danger of freezing the fluid in the system and the hydraulic circuit can be filled with water.
They are installed in confined spaces inside buildings (Basements, attics, office premises).
The chiller includes a compressor, evaporator, expansion valve and automation. The condenser is installed separately (remote condenser). Air cooled condensers and axial fans placed in an open area (Roof, outer wall, etc.). The chiller and the condenser are interconnected by Freon pipelines.
The chiller itself and the hydraulic circuit are located in a warm room, so you can fill the systems with water without draining it for the winter. They can be installed in closed rooms, and the condensing unit can be taken outside the room.
The condenser circuit of the chiller is connected to the cooling tower. As a rule, an anti-freeze liquid circulates in the condenser circuit. Circulation is provided by circulation pumps.
Such a cooling system has recently become more widespread, despite the presence of additional elements and increased complexity and cost.
In this scheme, the chiller is installed in a utility room (Ventilation chamber, basement, specially allocated place, etc.)
In such chillers, not Freon is used as a refrigerant, but water solutions boil at low pressure. For pumping water vapor, not a compressor is used, but the effect of absorbing water vapor by special solutions. Most often it is a solution of lithium bromide.
Absorption chillers use not electrical, but thermal energy, so it is beneficial to use them where there is waste heat (Such as thermal and nuclear power plants, steel production). It is for this reason that the use of these chillers is limited.